One of the main conditions for getting pregnant is to fertilize an ovum with sperm and attach it to the uterine cavity. As you know, the egg is released from the follicle and the ability to conceive is determined by the number of follicles in the ovary (ovarian reserve of the ovary).
The anti-Mullerian hormone is one of the criteria for determining a woman’s ability to give birth and is considered as an ovarian reserve marker for the number of follicles left in the ovary.
The anti-Mullerian hormone is produced by follicle granulosa cells and its production begins in the so-called initial follicles, which at this stage are microscopic in size and not visible on ultrasound examination. The most abundant Anti-Mullerian hormone is produced by the prenatal (primary) and minor (B4 mm) follicles. As the follicles grow further, the production of the Anti-Mullerian hormone stops and the follicles larger than 8 mm no longer produce this hormone. Consequently, with age increase, the reserve of follicles downsizes and the chances of pregnancy also decrease.
How is the Anti-Mullerian hormone evaluated?
The anti-Mullerian hormone is assessed through a blood test. The test can be performed on any day of the menstrual cycle, as the Anti-Mullerian level is relatively constant and does not depend on the day of the cycle.
Anti-Mullerian level and chances of pregnancy?
As I told you, the level of Anti-Mullerian hormone decreases with age increase and at the same time the chances of pregnancy significantly decrease.
The interpretation of the results is as follows:
- Optimal ability of childbearing- 5,6 – 9,5 ng/ml;
- Satisfactory ability of childbearing – 3,08 – 5,6 ng/ml;
- Low level of childbearing – 0,43 – 3,08 ng/ml;
- Very low ability of childbearing / infertility- 0,0 – 0,43 ng/ml.
If the level of Anti-Mullerian hormone in the blood is very high (more than 9.5 ng/ml), you may suspect polycystic ovary syndrome or some types of ovarian cancer.
Anti-Mullerian hormone and artificial insemination
The anti-mullerian hormone is one of the very good criteria for assessing ovarian reserve. The result of this analysis practically determines how strong stimulation should be used, whether there is a risk of hyperstimulation, whether it is worth using cheap methods of artificial insemination, or whether it is worth doing artificial insemination at all.
If the Anti-mullerian level is high, more follicles mature during the in vitro program cycle and the chances of getting pregnant are much higher. And under conditions of low ovarian reserve, the ovaries may not respond to stimulation at all, the egg may not be able to be obtained, and therefore pregnancy may not occur.
It is true that the number of follicles does not affect the quality of the ovum but the production of large numbers of them gives hope that at least one or a few of the embryos obtained will be of good quality and the pregnancy will be complete.
The blog was written by Invitro Team