Pathologies of uterine cervix appertain to the number of one of the world’s most widespread diseases and despite uterine cervix is the only organ of genital system which during visit to a doctor is directly examined, carcinoma of uterine cervix remains the most spread cancer of female genital system after breast cancer.
Average age of carcinoma of uterine cervix is considered to be 52,2 years, to risk groups appertain 35-39 and 60-64 age groups.
– What favours development of uterine cervix pathology?
Shorena Gogotchuri (obstetrician-gynaecologist): today we can say that development of uterine cervix
pathologies is favoured by the following factors: early beginning of sexual life, frequent change of sexual partners, (cervix traumatism developed as a result of) numerous childbirths and frequent abortions, sexually transmitted diseases, biocenosis disorders of vagina and uterine cervix, hormonal disorders.
Especially noteworthy is role of papillomavirus infection in development of uterine cervix pathology, representing a decisive factor. HPV virus is the most spread virus in the world among sexually transmitted
diseases. Danger of infection approaches from the moment of beginning a sexual life and in certain cases re-infection is possible. Papillomavirus represents a group of viruses which unites more than 130 varieties’ types and 13 types among them are distinguished by a particular malignancy and are called oncostrains. 16 and 18 types are revealed in 70 % cases of carcinoma of uterine cervix and pre-cancerous conditions.
– Which symptoms do uterine cervix pathologies have?
– Diseases of uterine cervix are not characterized by distinctly expressed symptoms and in most cases exactly this represents danger. They are characterized by certain staging of pathologic processes and carcinogenesis.
– Which diseases of uterine cervix do exist?
– To uterine cervix diseases appertain: background diseases, pre-cancerous conditions and carcinoma of uterine cervix.
Background diseases are: true erosion, ectomy, that is to say pseudo-erosion, ectropion, uterine cervix endometriosis, simple leukoplakia. It is notable that background diseases can be met as in juvenile, so in climacteric age, as often reason of development of uterine cervix diseases can become hormonal changes typical for these age groups.
To pre-cancerous conditions of uterine cervix appertain displasias. These conditions already imply such pathologic changes during which risk of development of oncological diseases in high. Displasias are divided into 4 groups:
1. Benign atypia connected with inflammatory processes;
2. LSIL (Low-grade Squamous Intraepithelial Lesion) – low-grade displasia;
3. HSIL (High-grade Squamous Intraepithelial Lesion) – high-grade displasia;
4. Expressed displasia or intraepithelial cancer – CINIII or CIS;
– Which methods of diagnostics of uterine cervix do exist?
In modern clinical gynaecology diagnostics of uterine cervix pathologies is one of the most important. Grounds for diagnostics are complaints, anamnestic data, general clinical and gynaecological investigations, also special investigation methods and their complex use. To main investigation methods appertain:
1. Uterine cervix and vagina visual examination and assessment of general condition;
2. Cytological method – enabling us to define existing changes on cellular level;
3. Colposcopy – by means of this method, under multiple optical enlargement are ascertained nature, limits and localization of pathological process.
Accordingly, treatment mode is optimized and observed in dynamics. Method is noninvasive, painless and informational. Mentioned methods are provided by the World Health Organization as one of the important screening method in diagnostics of uterine cervix pathologies;
4. Molecular-biological method – enables to establish existence of papilloma virus
and its concrete type;
5. Histological investigation of biopsy material of carcinoma of uterine cervix.
– How shall we protect ourselves from carcinoma of uterine cervix?
– Carcinoma of uterine cervix is always a result of pre-cancerous condition. Exactly because of this in revention of uterine cervix diseases a decisive importance is conferred to timely and regular visits to doctor, timely diagnostics of uterine cervix background and pre-cancerous conditions, infectious and viral
diseases of genital organs. Women shall by all means regularly conduct uterine cervix examinations. Timely given diagnosis and correctly conducted treatment enables us to avoid threatening diagnosis of carcinoma of uterine cervix.